In Wilson’s essay “Feminism and Fashion” the concept of the oppressive male gaze is explored. Wilson explains that because females were “admired for their looks rather than their achievements, women became passive objects for the male gaze” (Wilson, 36). Because of this, physical appearance and fashion has historically been an influential aspect of women’s lives. The male gaze is illustrated in various forms of entertainment and popular culture. Ian Fleming’s James Bond illustrates this concept as it has always been a patriarchal franchise that subjected female characters to the male gaze. Bond himself has subjected women to oppression as he is consistently portrayed discarding women as carelessly as you would chocolate wrappers the day after Halloween. Wilson argues that the male gaze is particularly evident when concerning fashion; he states that fashion is “regarded primarily as an instrument of oppression into which women were turned into passive objects…” (33). He goes on further to explain that “whereas male dress was generally intended to attract attention, female attire was designed to enhance the sexual allure of the wearer” (36). This fact lead to the creation of countless garments for women designed with men’s ideals in mind. The Bond girls have been the forerunners of these fashions as their characters have always been designed to capture male attention. The most renowned of these outfits include Honey Ryder’s white bikini in Dr. No and Anya Amasova’s diamond encrusted floor length evening gown in The Spy Who Loved Me (which features a revealing low cut V neckline). Other memorable outfits include Jinx Johnson’s orange bikini in Die Another Day, Holly Goodhead’s slimming yellow space suit in Moonraker, and Vesper Lynd’s violet gown in Casino Royal. The most modern Bond film to date, Skyfall, even portrays female characters who are draped in backless evening gowns and form fitting pencil skirts.The stylistic elements of these garments are low cut, sleek, and tight. They accentuate the feminine features of the body and are a pristine example of the male gaze in entertainment.

Wilson. “Feminism and Fashion”

Eve Moneypenny in Skyfall

Honey Ryder’s renowned white bikini in Dr. No

Anya Amasova in The Spy Who Loved Me

Halle Berry’s iconic tangerine swimsuit in Die Another Day

In a field historically dominated by men, Georgia O’Keeffe was one of the first modern females to rise from anonymity and gain respect and prestige in the contemporary art world. A recent article featured on PRWeb has broadcasted an announcement from the Georgia O’Keeffe museum in New Mexico, stating the institution’s plans for celebrating her 125th birthday on November 15th. O’Keeffe is considered a foremother of the feminist art movement because she pursued her own creative individuality when women were not recognized in the art world and broke through to launch a successful career. In Rakow’s essay “Feminist Approaches To Popular Culture: Giving Patriarchy It’s Due” she questions and explores how women have been able to express themselves in a patriarchal society and how their creativity has been overlooked and undervalued in years past. O’Keeffe is one woman who saw these injustices, yet strived regardless to make a name for herself in the andocentric territory of art. After struggling through many years of hardship, she finally managed to express herself through charcoal and oil paintings that depicted natural beauty. Her style differed from the conventional norms of the present; not only did she experiment with a different style of art, but she was a woman doing so in a male dominated realm of expertise. O’Keeffe herself recognized the inferiority historically assigned to women’s creativity. In a letter dating back to 1930 she wrote, “I often wonder what would have happened to me if I had been a man instead of a woman” (Robinson, 508). Despite being a woman, O’Keeffe’s works of art have been firmly integrated in the popular modern art scene for almost a century now; her first charcoal drawings brought her renown in 1916 and in 1946 the Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan made her the first female artist to be featured in a retrospective there. Although women’s creativity has been overlooked and repressed for hundreds of years, O’Keeffe has succeeded in expressing herself through art and by doing so, subsequently risen to become a household name.

O’Keeffe “Red Canna” (1924)

O’Keeffe “Banana Flower” (1934)

Works Cited

Robinson, Roxana. Georgia O’Keeffe: A Life. Lebanon, NH: Harper & Row, 1989. 508. Print.

“The Georgia O’Keeffe Museum Announces Events Celebrating Artist’s 125th Birthday.” PRWeb. N.p., 04 Oct 2012. Web. 9 Oct 2012. <http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/10/prweb9980479.htm&gt;.

Women in History. Georgia O’Keeffe biography. Last Updated: 3/31/2012. Lakewood Public Library. Date accessed 10/9/2012. <http://www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/okee-geo.htm&gt;.

John Vidal’s article “The staggering decline of sea ice at the frontline of of climate change” acutely illustrates the paradigm shift that our current generations are facing. The effects of expelled global warming gases in the atmosphere and subsequent melt of polar ice caps will be more apparent in the coming years as scientists have recently discovered that the melting process has accelerated. On a recent trip to the Arctic, it was discovered that more ice has melted in 2012 than ever recorded by satellites before, breaking the previous world record set in 2007 (Vidal). This ice melt has sped beyond previous predictions and is causing changes in the landscape of our familiar world. Foliage is moving North to escape the heat as beetles destroy forests in Canada, Siberia and Alaska (Vidal). Meanwhile, human settlements have to be reestablished due to shrinking coastlines and rising seas. The climate change has affected the economy as well; melting ice has opened sea passages that in the past have been inaccessible and in turn have made a slew of Arctic resources attainable. The oil, gas, mining, and shipping enterprises will benefit from the turn of events, however, new environmental threats are introduced as drilling expands into these new waters (Vidal). John Vidal’s article “The staggering decline of sea ice at the frontline of of climate change” acutely illustrates the paradigm shift that our current generations are facing. The effects of expelled global warming gases in the atmosphere and subsequent melt of polar ice caps will be more apparent in the coming years as scientists have recently discovered that the melting process has accelerated. On a recent trip to the Arctic, it was discovered that more ice has melted in 2012 than ever recorded by satellites before, breaking the previous world record set in 2007 (Vidal). This ice melt has sped beyond previous predictions and is causing changes in the landscape of our familiar world. Foliage is moving North to escape the heat as beetles destroy forests in Canada, Siberia and Alaska (Vidal). Meanwhile, human settlements have to be reestablished due to shrinking coastlines and rising seas. The climate change has affected the economy as well; melting ice has opened sea passages that in the past have been inaccessible and in turn have made a slew of Arctic resources attainable. The oil, gas, mining, and shipping enterprises will benefit from the turn of events, however, new environmental threats are introduced as drilling expands into these new waters (Vidal). This economic opportunity corresponds with Fiske’s theory of the base and superstructure he presents in his essay The Popular Economy.” As the dominant group who distributes goods to sell to the masses, the superstructure is dependent on resources such as oil and gas to create revenue. Since oil and gas have a clearly defined use-value, these commodities are highly sought after. Much of modern mechanical civilization depends on these recourses to exist. However, though much scientific research is being discovered and published about the detrimental effects that these processes are impressing upon our environment, they are not widely circulated in society. Since the superstructure is so dependent on these commodities, then it will not support the spread of knowledge that has the ability to shut its resource procuring operations down. As long as the masses remain ignorant and wary of the information being discovered by scientists, then they will continue supporting the superstructure, even if it means destroying the environment while doing so.

Works Cited
Fiske, John. “The Popular Economy.” Cultural Theory and Popular Culture A Reader. Ed. John Storey. 4th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited, 2009. Print.

Vidal, John. “The Staggering decline of sea ice at the frontline of climate change.” Guardian. 14 08 2012: n. page. Web. 17 Sep. 2012.